cosco

Mega Containership Equipped with ABB Turbochargers

China’s newest and largest container ship has ABB turbochargers installed to help to ensure optimal performance and fuel efficiency. 

The flagship in Cosco Shipping Line’s Universe mega containership series, the 21,000+ TEU COSCO Shipping Universe, was delivered in June 2018 by Chinese shipbbuilder Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd. The vessel is equipped with three ABB A180-L two-stroke turbochargers to match the diesel main engine and four ABB TPL67-C33 4-stroke turbochargers to match four auxiliary engines.

Cosco, the largest container shipping operator in Asia and fourth largest globally, already has hundreds of ABB turbochargers in operation across its fleet and has also selected the equipment for all main and auxiliary engines across the six new 21,000+ TEU vessels being delivered by 2019.

At a capacity of 21,237 TEU, COSCO Shipping Universe has eclipsed the record for China’s largest containership set weeks prior by a different Cosco Lines vessel, the Cosco Shipping Virgo. The pioneering vessel has an overall length of 399.9 meters and an overall height of 72 meters, with a deadweight of 198,000 tons and a traveling speed of 22 knots. Cosco Shipping Universe is planned to serve in the route from the Far East to Northwest Europe.

Oliver Riemenschneider, Managing Director, ABB Turbocharging, said, “The ABB turbochargers on Cosco Shipping Universe will support maximum performance and fuel efficiency, in addition to contributing to Cosco Shipping Lines pursuing green shipping practices for long-term success. We foresee the ABB turbochargers on the forthcoming mega containerships in the Universe series will contribute similar viable operational gains.”

According to the manufacturer, key benefits for ABB’s A100 series include compliance with IMO Tier II and Tier III emission limits; reduced fuel consumption; high operational flexibility, reliability and availability; long intervals between inspections, routine maintenance and overhauls; absolute operational safety with rigorous testing and reduced engine room noise.

The TPL-C series, respectively, is designed to meet growing market demand for greater power, efficiency and long operational life, ABB said. In addition to its fuel savings and low emissions capabilities, the TPL-C series boasts a modular design with minimized spare parts for easy installation and service.

ABB Turbocharging also provides servicing support for all ABB turbochargers in use across the Cosco Shipping Lines fleet. The firm provides access to 24/7 servicing, 365 days a year, and guaranteed 98 percent spare parts availability.

Source: Marinelink.com

fuel increase

Why are fuel prices increasing?

Fuel prices are on the increase again, which is liable to have a considerable impact on the freight industry.

Fuel is now at its highest cost since 2014, and the main reasons for this are the war in Syria, Iranian tensions and biofuel for renewable energy increases.

As a result, pump prices and bunkering have increased and fuel surcharges are now coming into effect. Shipping lines are raising freight costs as the rising oil price lands them with spiralling fuel bills. This is likely to result in the the cost of imported goods rising.

Maersk, the world’s largest shipping business, has joined rival Mediterranean Shipping Co (MSC) in slapping a surcharge on freight costs to offset its own rising costs. MSC has also introduced a similar measure, telling customers the situation was an “emergency and no longer sustainable”. Maersk has also stated it would stop working with Iran as a consequence of the US introducing sanctions on the country, ending the its nascent business there.

Explaining the prices rises, MSC added: “Fuel prices are up more than 30pc this year, and almost 70pc since last June. [Ship fuel] prices in Europe exceeded $442 per metric ton last week. Crude oil is hovering around $80 a barrel — the highest since 2014.”

Warning its customers of higher charges, Maersk said the increase in ship fuel prices was “significantly higher than expected”, hitting $440 per ton.

Almost 90pc of the world’s good trade travels by sea, and the higher fuel costs are ultimately likely to be passed on to consumers, with other shipping lines following suit.

Since 2009, the price of a ton of bunker fuel from Asia to the US West and East and Gulf coasts has on average been 5.7 times greater than the price of a barrel of Brent crude oil. Assuming that multiplier and the IHS Markit forecast holds, the average cost for bunker fuel in 2017 should come to $330 per ton. Such an increase would raise the current BAF for 20-foot containers to $292 from $238 and to $324 from $264 for 40-foot boxes to the West Coast, according to the BAF surcharge calculator of the Transpacific Stabilization Agreement. To the East Coast, the BAF would rise to $537 from $473 for 20-footers and from $525 to $597 for 40-footers.

In order to address the trend in increasing fuel costs over the last decade, most shipping companies began restructuring their operations to create fuel efficiencies:

  • Consolidated services through multi-carrier alliances.
  • Consolidated routes to serve more locations with fewer ships.
  • Improved monitoring of hull and propeller conditions to reduce resistance and improve efficiency.

These actions have helped carriers reduce fuel consumption, and consequently, their fuel costs. However the challenge of rising fuel prices in 2018 is even greater than ever and the outlook is challenging for shipping companies and freight forwarders alike.

To add to the pressure, analysts predict that there is the possibility that shipping fuel costs could rise by as much as a quarter in 2020 when new rules limiting sulphur kick in. Today Emission Control Areas restrict the Sulphur Limit for fuel oil used by ships but the Emission Control areas are restricted to coastal areas in Europe and the US and Canada. Under the new global cap the reduced Sulphur Limit is imposed in all global waters. The predicted cost increase will come as the change to ultra low sulphur fuel oil comes at a much higher cost based on todays market.

Beyond rising costs, higher bunker prices are problematic for container lines because of the delay between when fuel prices rise and when the container lines are able to pass those increases off to customers. This means container lines must spend billions of dollars on more expensive fuel without necessarily having the funding needed to offset the increase, according to maritime analyst SeaIntel.

Source: Telegraph / pfe-express.com / JOC.com

 

hapag lloyd

Hapag-Lloyd cutting costs to cope with a rise in fuel prices

German shipping company Hapag-Lloyd is cutting costs to cope with a rise in fuel prices that led it to slash full year earnings forecasts last month, its chief executive told shareholders on this week.

“Major cost positions have risen more than initially expected and are pressuring operating margins,” CEO Rolf Habben Jansen said in Hamburg. “We are responding short-term to this development through forceful cost management and will keep Hapag-Lloyd competitive this way,” he added.

Among the measures being taken are accepting more valuable cargo, trying to reduce terminal contract costs and stripping out economically inefficient ship systems, he said.

The effects of recent industry mergers have yet to be felt as the integration process is only just starting, he added, referring to a merger in April of three Japanese rivals and Chinese approval for COSCO Shipping Holdings’ takeover of Hong Kong peer Orient Overseas International.

Hapag-Lloyd in June cut its full-year profit forecast, saying freight rates had recovered more slowly than expected, while fuel costs had ballooned as global oil prices respond to supply disruptions and tightness.

The news led to several banks cutting their price targets on the stock, while the company stressed it hoped to reap substantial synergies from its 2017 merger with Arab peer UASC.

Habben Jansen also said the global ship orderbook had shrunk to just 11 percent of the total fleet. That should help bring supply and demand into a better balance over the next 2 1/2 to three years, he said.

At the same time, world shipping demand could rise 5.2 percent per year, which should result in freight rate increases from the second half of 2018 onwards.

But the CEO also said increased geopolitical uncertainty – as the world’s leading economies head for a full-blown trade war – was acutely felt by container liners and their customers.

Hapag-Lloyd last month said it has stopped one of two feeder services to Iran and would decide on the remaining one before a Nov. 4 deadline imposed by the United States.

Source: Reuters

arctic shipping

The environment and Arctic Shipping

Mariners have known about short cuts to the Pacific via the Arctic for a long time. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), north of Siberia, was discovered 300 years ago, and the Northwest Passage (NWP) has been on the map for more than a century.

Although these routes are much shorter than the traditional trading routes from Europe and the eastern US to the Pacific, until recently they were only navigable by specialised ships. They have not been considered commercially viable until now.

The world is warming, and over the last several decades climate change has begun to significantly change the game for vessel navigation. Alarmingly, global warming is not evenly distributed over the globe. In the Arctic, warming is at a much higher level than the global average. Svalbard, Norway, for example, is experiencing a temperature increase that is 6°C higher than the global average.

Climate change, retreating summer ice and the prospect of shorter journey times and 40% lower fuel costs has led Russia, European governments and some industries to expect a major ice-free shipping lane to open above Russia, allowing regular, year-long trade between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans within a few years.

However, low bunker fuel prices, a short sailing season and continuing treacherous ice conditions in the Arctic even in summer months means it could be 2040 at the earliest before it is commercially viable for ordinary merchant ships to pass through

In September 1980, Arctic ice covered some 8 mill. km2. In 2012, Arctic ice cover dropped to less than half that area — 3.4M km2 — the lowest ever recorded. The reduction in Arctic ice cover is relatively linear (see image below, click for larger version), and the trend means the NSR and the NWR are now navigable for part of the year, every year.

Peaking with 71 transits in 2013, the Northern Sea Route to the north of Russia has been more popular for commercial transits than its counterpart in the Americas, but NSR transits declined after 2013 and were down to 25 in 2017. Nevertheless, due to the drop in Arctic sea ice and enormous amounts of oil, natural gas and various metal ores, the Siberian coast has seen a significant increase in shipping activities.

Decreasing ice coverage in the Arctic would open a larger window for transits. A report published in the journal Nature Climate Change in June 2018 predicts that, even if we manage to keep temperature change within the parameters of the 2°C temperature increase as embedded in the Paris Agreement, we will experience a completely ice-free Arctic during the Northern hemisphere’s summer months within this century.

Russia has tried to open up the Arctic to international traffic by offering icebreaker service and better port facilities. But cargo in transit along the northern sea route dropped from 1.3m tonnes in 2013 to 300,000 tonnes in 2014. Last year only 100,000 tonnes was transported between Asia and Europe on the route. However, there was a big rise in the number of vessels going to and from Russian Arctic ports.

So how would an ice-free Arctic summer impact shipping?

As of now, vessels cut off 40% of the distance travelled between Rotterdam and Yokohama by using the Northern Sea Route. An ice-free Arctic would likely mean 50% or more in miles saved over traditional routes.

Shipping could save millions of tonne-miles and huge amounts of fuel if the predicted growth of the NSR’s navigable window holds true, an outcome that would be good for shipping’s global greenhouse gas emissions account.

Average Arctic temperatures are rising twice as fast as elsewhere in the world and the polar ice cap’s permanent cover is shrinking at a rate of around 10 percent per decade. By the end of this century, summers in the Arctic could be free of ice.

Black Carbon

One alarm raised by some green NGOs that is supported by many nations including some of the Arctic littoral states, is that shipping’s emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic is speeding up the melting of Arctic ice — sea ice as well as glacial ice. Black carbon is basically soot emanating from incomplete engine combustion and is generally believed to be more related to the combustion of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) than that of lighter distillates. It is also related to the condition of the engine as well as to the engine load.

Scientists have predicted negative consequences from the rapid melting of Arctic sea ice and the Arctic glaciers that will be felt globally. Melting will result in rising sea levels globally, threatening the existence of many island states. More open water means further absorption of the sun’s warmth and heating of the Arctic Ocean — an accelerating cycle. Many large cities will need to invest in expensive climate change mitigation enterprises, such as increasing the height and extent of dykes and barriers. Two obvious examples of the threat to low-lying cities are New Orleans, which was inundated during Hurricane Katrina and New York and New Jersey which faced huge storm surges from Hurricane Sandy. Rising sea levels and a likely increase in frequency and violence of hurricanes offers frightening scnarios for low-lying cities and countries.

Massive melting of Arctic ice might also, according to some scientists, force the Gulf Stream to take a more southerly course, which will result in a much colder northern Europe. So even as climate change produces an average increase in global temperatures, there are likely to be regions that will experience colder weather and climate.

Ban on Heavy Fuel Oil in the Arctic?

Last year Canada and other states proposed that IMO should commence work on mitigating the risks of use and carriage of HFO as fuel by ships in the Arctic. The European Parliament has broadly supported this move by adopting a resolution calling for a ban on the use of HFO in Arctic waters.

Prior to that, in October 2016, the IMO at MEPC 70 decided that from 1 January 2020, all ships operating outside Emission Control Areas (ECAs) must not burn fuel oil with a sulphur content above 0.5% (by mass). When that rule was adopted in 2008, it was believed that such future fuel oil would be distillate, either marine gas oil or marine diesel oil.

In connection with the 0.1% sulphur limit in ECAs in 2015, the world saw a number of new fuels that did not fall under the traditional definition of distillate fuel. It is expected that the 2020 global cap of 0.5% sulphur limit will see the introduction of many new fuels. Some of these are expected to be based on de-sulphurised HFO derived from sweet crude, others might be blends of HFO with low-sulphur products. It could even be new oil products that the world has not yet seen.

The Environment

The WWF state that the trend will increase pressure on a relatively pristine area, and that although the routes will not be open year round, companies are already investing billions of dollars in tankers capable of going through ice.

The WWF are:

  • Mapping data on Arctic species, ecosystems, cultures and industry that will help us make concrete policy recommendations pertaining to Arctic ship traffic.
  • Advocating for a strong Polar Code, currently under discussion in the International Maritime Organization, which will set legally binding environmental requirements for all ships in the Arctic.
  • Working to establish PSSAs (particularly sensitive sea areas) to protect vulnerable areas from shipping activities.

Their vision for Arctic shipping is:

  • Ships venturing into Arctic waters must be prepared for Arctic conditions, especially those carrying ecologically hazardous cargos.
  • Operational practices for ships operating in Arctic waters should include measures forbidding the discharge of ballast waters in Arctic areas to prevent the introduction of alien species.
  • These measures need to be backed up with monitoring and enforcement.

Conclusion

It will be decades before big cargo ships link China and northern Europe by taking a shortcut through the Arctic Ocean, and it will remain cheaper to send trade between Europe and the east via the Suez canal until then. The Arctic sea ice will be too thick and treacherous for many years, requiring expensive ice breakers and strengthened hulls.

The Copenhagen Business School report concludes that “the Arctic navigation season is currently too short and ice conditions are too unpredictable for liner shipping to be feasible. Arctic liner shipping will only become a viable alternative to the contemporary shipping lanes if global warming continues to melt the ice cover along the North-west passage and the Northern sea route. It is highly unlikely that large-scale containerised cargo transports will appear in the near future. The question then arises: when, if ever, will the ice conditions allow for continuous and economically feasible container transport along the route?”

The greatest potential for the use of ice-reinforced container ships was found if the speed of global warming increased and the price of fuel is high. But even in this scenario, the cost per container was about 10% higher than going via the Suez canal route.

Source: mpropulsion.com / The Guardian / WWF

 

lng gas

The impact of shipping on the climate cannot be solved by gas

Europe has little to gain from trying to decarbonise the unwieldy shipping sector with liquefied natural gas (LNG), according to a new study that looks into how the EU could cut emissions over the next three decades.

Research by consultants UMAS revealed on Monday (25 June) that pouring billions of dollars into LNG-refuelling capacity for maritime and inland shipping would only yield emission reductions ranging from 6% to 10%.

The study highlighted how half a billion dollars has already been used by the EU to beef up infrastructure and that no notable greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) have been logged as a result.

Shipping accounted for about 3% of global emissions in 2012 and, on its current trajectory, will contribute between 6% and 14% by 2050 due to increased growth. Eighty percent of global trade is already transported by water.

EU commitments to the UN’s Paris Agreement mean the bloc is targeting 40% GHG reductions by 2030 and a net-zero emissions strategy for mid-century is likely to be released by the end of the year.

Brussels wants every part of the economy to do its fair share of decarbonising, meaning shipping will have to play its part and a recent agreement by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to target “at least 50%” cuts compared to 2008 by 2050 was a step towards that aim.

But the IMO commitment is non-binding and a final plan is not expected until 2023, causing uncertainty about where investment should be directed. If the IMO revises its ambition up to a net-zero strategy, LNG assets could end up stranded, according to the study.

NGO group Transport & Environment, which commissioned the report, said the EU should “instead back future-proof technologies that would deliver the much greater emissions reductions that will be needed, including port-side charging and liquid hydrogen infrastructure”.

UMAS’s modelling showed that under a ‘high gas’ scenario, where LNG prices are low and alternative fuels like hydrogen are unavailable, the EU would be hit with a $22bn bill up to 2050 and GHG reductions would only fall within a 6%-10% bracket.

While increased LNG uptake could help the sector hit the IMO’s 2020 cap on sulphur emissions, according to UMAS researcher Domagoj Baresic, the fuel’s use in “shipping’s transition to a low carbon future can only be transient”.

Other fuel options include biofuels, electrification and hydrogen. Battery-powered ocean-going freighters are currently not feasible due to cost and component weight, so smaller vessels are the limit, while biofuels face their own set of cost of standards-based challenges.

EU legislation dating from 2014 on alternative fuels lays out a number of options across various sectors but its insistence on LNG refuelling and bunkering facilities has now been called into question by T&E. The group urged the Commission to revise the “faulty” directive.

Although LNG is easy to transport, one of its main downsides is its high methane content, whose climate-affecting potential is significantly greater than that of carbon dioxide.

The study explained that the phenomenon of ‘methane slipping’, when unburnt LNG escapes through a ship’s exhaust into the atmosphere, could actually help wipe out any emission reduction gains over diesel depending on the scenario.

The issue of fugitive methane is a serious consideration for energy companies and pipeline owners, as it entails sometimes significant losses in both deliverable capacity and income.

Last week, a landmark study by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) claimed that methane leakage in the United States is 60% higher than previously estimated by the country’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

EDF chief scientist Steve Hamburg warned that if more than 2.7% of gas production leaks from the US network then the GHG impact is more significant than burning coal for power. The study drew on a decade of work to estimate that leakages totalled 2.3%.

Oil majors like Exxon and BP already intend to address the problem by rolling out advanced technology like infrared detection equipment. The International Energy Agency estimates that between 40% and 50% of current methane emissions could be cut at no net cost.

To view the full report please go here

Source: Euractiv.com

international shipping centre

Shanghai plan to become an International Shipping Centre by 2020

Shanghai are working towards becoming an International Shipping Centre by 2020. To achieve the target and raise the city’s core competitiveness, the local government has drafted a three-year plan.

One goal of the three-year plan is to further consolidate Shanghai’s status as an international shipping hub. In the Chinese mainland, the Port of Shanghai boasts the largest number of container shipping routes, the highest frequency of route operations and the widest network coverage. In 2017, cargo throughput rose 6.9 percent from 2016 to 751 million tons at the Port of Shanghai, while container throughput increased 8.3 percent year-on-year to 40.23 million TEUs, ranking first in the world for the eighth consecutive year.

At the same time, leveraging on the golden waterway along the Yangtze River, the Port of Shanghai is developing its waterway-waterway transport business and proceeding with its renovation project on high-grade inland waterways at a steady pace. Container lines connecting all ports along the Yangtze River are operated on a regular basis and breakthroughs have been made in the two-way navigation for large vessels along the deep-water passage at the mouth of the Yangtze River.

In 2017, waterway-waterway transport accounted for 46.7 percent of total container transfer. Among all, 10.58 million TEUs were handled along the Yangtze River, accounting for 56.4 percent of the total waterway-waterway transport and 26.3 percent of total throughput at the Port of Shanghai.

Another goal of the plan is to generally establish Shanghai’s status as an Asian gateway aviation hub. Shanghai has successfully built a “one city, two airports” system, the first of its kind in the country, whose scale and layout are compatible with their international counterparts.

The city’s two international airports, namely Pudong and Hongqiao, have a total of four terminals, six runways, 1.47 million square meters’ cargo area and an airport bonded zone, with a total designed capacity for 100 million passengers and 5.2 million tons of cargoes. Over 100 airlines have launched services to the city’s airports, which are now connected to 297 cities worldwide.

Transit centers of the three largest logistics companies are all under operation in the international cargo mail and courier service zones at the Pudong airport. In 2017, passenger throughput at Shanghai airports reached 112 million, ranking fourth around the globe. Cargo mail throughput at Pudong airport maintained its No.3 global ranking for the 10th consecutive year. Throughput of international passengers and cargo mail at Pudong airport accounted for one-third and half of the country’s total, respectively, making it the No.1 gateway in the Chinese mainland.

The third aim is to continuously improve Shanghai’s function of modern shipping services. A cluster of shipping service areas such as Waigaoqiao, Yangshan-Lingang, North Bund, Wusongkou, Hongqiao, and Pudong Airport, among which the shipping industry in Hongkou district ranks first in terms of its contribution to the district’s overall financial income, accounting for 19 percent of Hongkou’s public financial income.

A group of international and national shipping functional organizations have gathered in Shanghai. The world’s top 20 liner companies, the top four cruise companies, nine global shipping classification societies, and major State-owned and privately owned shipping companies have all set up headquarters or branches in Shanghai.

Shanghai Shipping Exchange has become the national container liner freight registration center and the China Ship Information Center. The container freight index has become a benchmark for the global container shipping market. The capability of maritime legal services has been continuously improved. The number of maritime arbitration cases in Shanghai accounts for 90 percent of the country’s total number of cases. Shanghai Maritime Court is striving to build an international maritime judicial center.

Source: Hellenic Shipping News / Global Times

China flag

China to ban the recycling of international ships

China plans to stop allowing the recycling of international ships at its yards as of the beginning of 2019.

The decision comes on the back of China’s efforts to crack down on polluter and waste producing industries in the country, which have seen many yards denied their ship recycling licenses.

The Chinese-flagged ships will be allowed to continue to be dismantled at Chinese yards, however, the Government of China will no longer provide subsidies for the branch, as decided last year. Due to such a turn in policy, local owners are likely to look elsewhere to retire their ships, including India.

“In view of this, owners will have to succumb to the fact that, with the exception of Turkey, the H.K Convention approved recycling yards in Alang will have to be taken more seriously following the incredible improvements that have been made at these yards over many years and the fact that these yards now can only offer owners the only alternative at this current time for green recycling,” Clarksons Platou Shipbroking said.

Two years ago, industry leader Maersk committed to investing in Alang yards and boosting their operational standards to comply with the company’s requirements.

Chief Executive Officer of  A.P. Møller – Mærsk A/S, Søren Skou, said recently that some yards in Alang, India, are performing at the same level or better than yards in China and Turkey, “which used to be the only options for economically viable and responsible ship recycling. “

Explaining its approach, Maersk said that the company helps the yards to upgrade their practices while contractually requiring full implementation of its standards controlled by on-site supervision throughout the process as well as quarterly audits by third parties.

Even though the situation is far from perfect, especially when it comes to health hazards at the shipbreaking yards in Alang, Maersk believes that helping the yards to improve their standards is an opportunity to change the industry for the better.

However, for a more sustainable progress to be made more shipowners need to become involved.

From a total of 206 ships, which were broken in the first quarter of 2018, 152 ships were sold to the beaches of South Asia for breaking, according to NGO Shipbreaking Platform.

Despite a considerable improvement made by some shipbreakers, a great majority of south Asian yards are notorious for their poor environmental and healthy and safety practices.

It is quite common for workers to suffer serious injuries or even get killed due to exposure to various types of risks ranging from falling objects to intoxication.

So far this year, 10 workers have lost their lives and 2 workers have been severely injured when breaking ships in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Another two workers were reported dead after an accident at a shipbreaking yard in Alang, India, data from NGO Shipbreaking Platform shows.

Source: World Maritime News

air pollution

Ports and Shipping need to curb air pollution

RealWire, an online media presence, has this week issued a press release related to using proven existing technology to curb UK Shipping and Port Industry air pollution.

According to RealWire, providing renewable electricity to ships whilst in port in the UK could reduce the equivalent of 1.2 million diesel cars worth of nitrogen oxides pollution and bring £402 million per year of health and environmental benefits.

By plugging into the power grid with 100 per cent renewable electricity and turning off their diesel engines, ships at berth in the UK would reduce emissions equivalent to 84,000 to 166,000 diesel buses – or 1.2 million diesel cars representative of the current UK fleet.

The pressure is mounting for the UK to align with EU air pollution emission targets, and ships at berth need to cut their fuel consumption and port authorities and terminal operators need to integrate shore power capabilities in a simpler and more efficient way.

Schneider Electric supports decarbonisation through its business efforts, this has led to a sponsored study into the emissions from idling ships at berth in UK ports that affects the quality of the air we breathe. Often neglected as source of air pollution, ships spewing toxic emissions near to coastal towns and cities puts people and the environment at risk.

While road transport pollution garners public prominence because it is so visible in our everyday lives, we should not underestimate the impact that portside emissions have on the environment and the cost of keeping society healthy. Offshore supply vessels, fishing boats, roll-on-roll-off, bulk carriers and passenger ferries contribute the most to the emissions from auxiliary engines at berth. The emissions from all vessels’ auxiliary engines at berth in UK ports in 2016 is estimated to be equivalent to nearly 2.6 per cent of the total transport sector emissions of nitrogen oxides in the UK. The best estimates of these emissions from auxiliary engines are 830,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide, 11,000 tonnes of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 270 tonnes in particulate matter and 520 tonnes of sulphur dioxide.

There were approximately 110,000 buses and coaches in the UK fleet in 2016 and the study has found that ships’ auxiliary engines at berth are equivalent to the nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions equivalent to 84,000 to 166,000 buses and coaches representative of those currently in the UK fleet, respectively.

Dirty air has been linked to asthma symptoms, heart disease and even lung cancer. It has been linked to dementia and is also known to increase the risk of children growing up with smaller lungs. Meanwhile, 59 per cent of the UK pollution – 40 million people – live in areas where diesel pollution threatens their health, according to Friends of the Earth. Global deaths linked to ambient air pollution are estimated to have increased by just under 20 per cent since 1990, while 95 per cent of the world’s population is now breathing toxic air, according to a recent study by the 

Health Effects Institute while the Royal College of Physicians has found that air pollution in the UK contributes to 40,000 deaths per year. The UK could bypass a major health hazard as well as avoid health and environmental impacts of up to £402 million per year through the elimination of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates – using the introduction of shore connections at UK ports. If all the emissions from the auxiliary engines at berth from these vessels were reduced to zero by replacement with power from 100 per cent renewable electricity sources, the value in reducing emissions would be between £136 million and £483 million per year.

“The UK is one of the last global regions to introduce shore connections at its ports and it will take industry collaboration and innovation to bring forward the introduction of portside electricity in a quick and sustainable manner. There is now a global standard for shore connections and it is up to our ports now to catch up with the global norm and demonstrate that we truly believe in a cleaner, healthier future,” says Peter Selway, Marine Segment Marketing Manager at Schneider Electric.

While health conscious countries like the UK are employing proactive policies to help curb the dangerous impacts of air pollution and the ongoing efforts to alleviate roadside toxic fumes is indeed noble, the long-term impact of the shipping industry should not be ignored.

Globally, the partnership between the Port of Seattle and the shipping industry has seen annual CO2 emissions being cut by up to 29 per cent annually in the port, with financial savings of up to 26 per cent per port call. Meanwhile, shore connection capabilities have been mandatory for all ships at berth in California since 2010 and by 2020, at least 80 per cent of berths have to be equipped with shore connection technology.

The shipping industry itself has been receptive to plugging in at port and Schneider Electric’s technology has assisted La Meridionale to achieve a 95 per cent reduction in its berthside emissions. Danish ferry group Scandlines, meanwhile, has seen an overall energy saving of between 10-14 per cent in its equipped vessels.

“It is time now to adopt a new way of thinking and embrace, as an industry, the benefits that shore connections and portside electricity can bring quickly and cost-effectively. We are fortunate enough to have the technology at hand and we must put it to good use,” Selway concludes.

global port

Global container port demand rising

Drewry’s latest five-year global container port demand forecast is 4.3% per annum, up from last year.

The maritime consultancy made the announcement in its summary of the key trends and developments in the global container port and terminal industry.

Projected port capacity expansion is 2.7% per annum, so average utilisation levels will rise, said Drewry.

Neil Davidson, senior analyst ports and terminals at Drewry, pointed out, however, that there is a strong focus on optimisation of existing facilities as opposed to building new ones and that terminal operators are focusing on cost control and efficiency to maintain project margins.

Drewry’s latest assessment of port throughput indices showed that the global index fell in September 2017 but was 10 points up on September 2016 and 12 points up on 2015.

Mr Davidson said that the growth rate in 2017 showed a sustained upward trend.

North America and Latin America showed the highest annual increases, 12.6 and 11.1 respectively, while Europe had the lowest increase at 4.4%.

The top five global terminal operators were calculated as being PSA International, Hutchinson Ports, DP World, APM Terminals and China Cosco Shipping.

According to BIMCO, the worlds largest international shipping association, container shipping has shown strong growth forecasts supported by equal demand so far this year, 

Source: Port Strategy / Port Technology

emissions

Shipping emissions to be halved by 2050

Following on from our earlier article concerning shipping emissions, over 170 countries reached agreement on Friday (13 April) to reduce CO2 emissions from shipping by “at least” 50% on 2008 levels by 2050, ending years of slow progress.

Despite opposition from nations including Brazil, Saudi Arabia and the US, the states came to a final agreement on Friday, signalling to industry that a switch away from fossil fuels is fast approaching.

Ultimately the goal is for shipping’s greenhouse gas emission to be reduced to zero by the middle of the century, with most newly built ships running without fossil fuels by the 2030s.

Kitack Lim, Secretary-General of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), said the adoption of the initial strategy “would allow future IMO work on climate change to be rooted in a solid basis”.

The compromise plan to halve shipping emissions by 2050 leaves the door open to deeper cuts in the future, placing a strong emphasis on scaling up action to 100% by mid-century.

“Meeting this target means that in the 2030s most newly built ocean-going vessels will run on zero carbon renewable fuels. Ships, which transport over 80% of global trade, will become free from fossil fuels by then,” the European Climate Foundation said in a statement.

European Union countries, along with the Marshall Islands, the world’s second-biggest ship registry, had supported a goal of cutting emissions by 70 to 100% by 2050, compared with 2008 levels.

But opposition from some countries – including the United States, Saudi Arabia, Brazil and Panama – limited what could be achieved at the IMO session last week in London.

In Brussels, the European Commission hailed the deal as “a significant step forward” in the global effort to tackle climate change.

“The shipping sector must contribute its fair share to the goals of the Paris Agreement,” said EU Transport Commissioner Violeta Bulc and her colleague in charge of Energy and Climate Action, Miguel Arias Cañete.

While the EU had sought a higher level of ambition, the Commission said the deal was “a good starting point that will allow for further review and improvements over time”.

Shipping currently represents 2-3% of global CO2 emissions and could reach 10% by 2050 if no action is taken, the Commission reminded.

Dr Tristan Smith, an energy and shipping reader at the UCL Energy Institute, said that the 2050 target is likely to be tightened even further in the future.

“Even with the lowest level of ambition, the shipping industry will require rapid technological changes to produce zero-emission ships, moving from fossil fuels, to a combination of electricity (batteries), renewable fuels derived from hydrogen, and potentially bioenergy,” he said.

While he admitted that such changes are “massive” for a global industry with over 50,000 ships trading internationally, Smith said these reductions can be achieved “with the correct level of investment and better regulation”.

“What happens next is crucial,” said John Maggs, president of the Clean Shipping Coalition and senior policy advisor at Seas At Risk, an umbrella organisation of environmental NGOs.

“The IMO must move swiftly to introduce measures that will cut emissions deeply and quickly in the short-term. Without these the goals of the Paris agreement will remain out of reach,” he warned.

According to the text produced by the IMO working group submitted to member states, the initial strategy would not be legally binding for member states.

A final IMO plan is not expected until 2023.

Source: Edie.net / Independent